Allergy and Intolerance

Katona S, Kaminski ER. (2002) Sensitivity to Quorn mycoprotein (Fusarium venenatum) in a mould allergic patient. J Clin Pathol 2002;55:876–879

Marlow Foods. (2001) GRAS Notification for Mycoprotein. (Submitted as: U.S. FDA, 2002 – GRN 091). Submitted by: North Yorkshire, UK: Marlow Foods Ltd.

Tee RD, Gordon DJ, Welch JA, et al. Investigation of possible adverse allergic reactions to mycoprotein (“Quorn”). Clin Exp Allergy 1993; 23:257–60.

VanDurme P, et al. (2003) Allergy to ingested Mycoprotein in a patient with mould spore inhalant allergy. J Allergy & Clin Immunol 112(2): 452-454.

Patel S, Hazel CM, Winterton AG, Mortby E. (1996) Survey of ethnic foods for mycotoxins. Food Addit Contam 13(7) 833-841.

Miller SA, Dwyer JT. (2001) Evaluating the safety and nutritional value of mycoprotein. Food Technol 55(7): 42-47.

Shand AG. (2002) Investigation into adverse reactions to Mycoprotein. MD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.

Hoff M, et al. (2003) Immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to ingestion of mycoprotein (Quorn) in a patient allergic to molds caused by acid ribosomal protein P2. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(5): 1106-1110. 

Blood Lipids

Ishikawa T, et al. (1995) The effect of mycoprotein intake (12g and 24g per day) over 4 weeks on serum cholesterol levels. Prog Med 15: 61-74.

Nakamura H, et al. (1994) Effect of Myco-proteins intake on serum lipids of healthy subjects. Prog Med, 14(7), 1972-1976.

Ruxton CS, McMillan B. (2010) The impact of mycoprotein on blood cholesterol levels; a pilot study. Brit Food Journal 112 (10), 1092 -1101.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1998) Myco-protein as a Functional Food: Effects on Lipemia, Glycemia and Appetite Variables. Proc. 16th Intnl Cong Nutr.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1990) Effect of Myco-protein on Blood Lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 52(4) 646-650.

Homma Y, et al. (1995) Effects of 8-week ingestion of mycoprotein on plasma levels of lipids and apo (lipo) proteins. Prog Med 15: 183-195.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1992) Myco-protein Reduced Blood Lipids in Free Living Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 415-419.

General Review

Finnigan TJA. (2011) Mycoprotein: origins, production and properties. In Handbook of Food Proteins (ed GO Philips and PA Williams), pp 335 – 352. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.

Knight N, Roberts G, Shelton D. (2001) The thermal stability of Quorn pieces. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 36 (1), 47-52.

Wheelock V. (1993) Quorn: a case study of a healthy food ingredient. Br Food J 95(5):40-44.

Denny A, Aisbitt B and Lunn J. (2008) Mycoprotein and health. BNF Nutrition Bulletin 33: 298 – 310.

Sadler M. (1990) Mycoprotein – A New Food. Nutr Bull BNF 15:180-190. Cited In: Marlow Foods, 2001.

Miri T, Barigou M, Fryer PJ, Cox PW. (2005) Flow induced fiber alignment in mycoprotein paste. Food Res. International. 38 1151 – 1160.

Miri T. (2004) Rheology and microstructure of mycoprotein filamentous paste. Ph.D Thesis. University of Birmingham.

Rodger, GW. Angold, R>E. (1991). The effect of freezing on some properties of Quorn mycoprotein. In Food freezing: today and tomorrow. Ed. Bald, W.B. 87 – 95.

Sadler M. (1991) Mycoprotein in the British Diet. In: General Practitioners Yearbook. pp. 515-518. Cited In: Marlow Foods, 2001.


Frost G, Bottin J, Finnigan TJA. Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and improves insulin sensitivity without altering GLP-1 and PYY concentrations in overweight adults. Am J Clin Nutr.

Bottin J, Cropp E, Finnigan TJA, Hogben A, Frost G. (2012) Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and improves insulin sensitivity compared to chicken. Proc ECO. Lyon May 2012.

Turnbull, WH, et al. (1998) Myco-protein as a Functional Food: Effects on Lipemia, Glycemia and Appetite Variables. Proc. 16th Intnl Cong Nutr. (included as reference 12).

Turnbull WH, Ward T. (1995) Myco protein reduces glycemia and insulinemia when taken with an oral glucose tolerance test. Am J Clin Nutr 61 (1) 135-140.

Bottin J, Cropp E, Ford H, Betremieux L, Finnigan TJA, Frost G. (2011) Mycoprotein reduces insulinaemia and improves insulin sensitivity. Proc Nutr Soc 70 E372.

Marks L. (2005) Effects of mycoprotein foodstuffs on glycaemic responses and other factors beneficial to health. PhD Thesis. University of Ulster.

Nutrition Science

Quigley ME, Englyst HN. (1992) Determination of neutral sugars and hexosamines by HPLC with pulsed amperometric detection. Analyst 117, 1715 – 1718.

Dunlop MV, Kilroe S, Bowtel J, Finnigan TJA, Salmon D, Wall B. (2017) Mycoprotein represents a bioavailable and insulinotropic non-animal derived dietary protein source: a dose-response study. British J Nutr. In Press.

Edwards DG, Cummings JH. (2010) The protein quality of mycoprotein. Proc Nutr Soc 69(OCE4): E331.


Bottin, J Swann, JR Cropp, E Chambers, ES, Ford, HE, Ghatei, M and Frost GS (2016) Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and post prandial glucose release without altering glucagon like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations in healthy overweight and obese adults: a randomised control trial. British Journal of Nutrition 116, 360 – 374.

Bottin J. (2014). Nutritional and surgical influences on appetite regulation and body composition in overweight and obese humans. PhD Thesis. Imperial College London.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1993) Acute Effects of Myco-protein on Subsequent Energy Intake and Appetite Variables. Am J Clin Nutr 58 (4): 507-512. Accessible at

Burley VJ, et al. (1993) Influence of High Fiber Food (Myco-protein) on Appetite: Effects of Satiation (Within Meals) and Satiety (Following Meals). Euro J Clin Nutr 47, 409-418.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1991) The Effect of Myco-protein on Hunger, Satiety and Subsequent Food Consumption, in Obesity in Europe 9 1: 67-70, ed. Ailhaud G. et. al.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1998) Myco-protein as a Functional Food: Effects on Lipemia, Glycemia and Appetite Variables. Proc. 16th Intnl Cong Nutr.

Williamson DA, et al. (2006) Effects of consuming mycoprotein, tofu or chicken upon subsequent eating behaviour, hunger and safety. Appetite 46: 41-48.


Finnigan TJA. et al. (2010) A scoping study towards an LCA for Quorn mince Proc VII Intl conference on LCA in the agri food sector Bari Sept 2010.

Khoury CK, et al. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 18; 111(11): 4001–4006.

Finnigan, TJA, Needham, L and Abbott, CM (2016) Mycoprotein a healthy new protein with a low environmental impact. IN: Sustainable Proteins ed Sudarshan Nadathur, Janitha P. D. Dr. Wanasundara, Laurie Scanlin. Academic Press, 301 – 326.

Ranganathan J, et al. Shifting Diets for a Sustainable Food Future. Working Paper, Installment 11 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Accessible at

Tilman D, Clark M. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature 2014; Nov 27 (515):518-522. doi:10.1038/nature13959.

FAO. 2017 Strategic work of FAO for SUSTAINABLE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE. Accessible at

Blonk H, et al. (2008) Milieueffecten van Nederlandse consumptie van eiwitrije producten. Gevolgen van veranging van dierlijke eiwitten anno 2008. Blonk Milieu Advies Gouda.

Derbyshire, EJ (2017) Flexitarian Diets and Health: A Review of the Evidence-Based Literature. Frontiers in Nutrition 6.

Quorn Frozen Mince certification by the Carbon Trust:

Tuomisto H. (2010) Food security and protein supply. Cultured meat a solution? Aspects Appl Biol, 102 99 – 104.

Neville, N. Finnigan TJA, Akintoye OA and Martindale W. (2012) Life cycle assessment in the meat alternative foods sector. Carbon footprinting and consumer communications. Proc 8th Int Conf Life Cycel Assessment in the Food Agri Sector. Oct 1 – 4 St Malo.

Finnigan TJA. (2010) Mycoprotein LCA and the Food 2030 challenge. Aspects Appl Biol. 102 81 – 90.

Finnigan TJA, Lemon M, Allen B, Paton I. (2010) Mycoprotein LCA and Food 2030. Aspects of Applied Biology 102, 81 – 90.

Finnigan TJA. (2012) Mycoprotein; origin, production and properties. In: Handbook of Food Proteins Ed Phillips, GO and Williams, PA. Woodhead Publishing, 333 – 352.