Allergy and Intolerance

Tee RD, Gordon DJ, Welch JA, et al. Investigation of possible adverse allergic reactions to mycoprotein (“Quorn”). Clin Exp Allergy 1993; 23:257–60.

Marlow Foods. (2001) GRAS Notification for Mycoprotein. (Submitted as: U.S. FDA, 2002 – GRN 091). Submitted by: North Yorkshire, UK: Marlow Foods Ltd.

Hoff M, et al. (2003) Immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to ingestion of mycoprotein (Quorn) in a patient allergic to molds caused by acid ribosomal protein P2. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(5): 1106-1110. 

Miller SA, Dwyer JT. (2001) Evaluating the safety and nutritional value of mycoprotein. Food Technol 55(7): 42-47.

Patel S, Hazel CM, Winterton AG, Mortby E. (1996) Survey of ethnic foods for mycotoxins. Food Addit Contam 13(7) 833-841.

Shand AG. (2002) Investigation into adverse reactions to Mycoprotein. MD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.

Katona S, Kaminski ER. (2002) Sensitivity to Quorn mycoprotein (Fusarium venenatum) in a mould allergic patient. J Clin Pathol 2002;55:876–879

VanDurme P, et al. (2003) Allergy to ingested Mycoprotein in a patient with mould spore inhalant allergy. J Allergy & Clin Immunol 112(2): 452-454.

Blood Lipids

Ruxton CS, McMillan B. (2010) The impact of mycoprotein on blood cholesterol levels; a pilot study. Brit Food Journal 112 (10), 1092 -1101.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1990) Effect of Myco-protein on Blood Lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 52(4) 646-650.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1992) Myco-protein Reduced Blood Lipids in Free Living Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 415-419.

Homma Y, et al. (1995) Effects of 8-week ingestion of mycoprotein on plasma levels of lipids and apo (lipo) proteins. Prog Med 15: 183-195.

Ishikawa T, et al. (1995) The effect of mycoprotein intake (12g and 24g per day) over 4 weeks on serum cholesterol levels. Prog Med 15: 61-74.

Nakamura H, et al. (1994) Effect of Myco-proteins intake on serum lipids of healthy subjects. Prog Med, 14(7), 1972-1976.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1998) Myco-protein as a Functional Food: Effects on Lipemia, Glycemia and Appetite Variables. Proc. 16th Intnl Cong Nutr.

General Review

Denny A, Aisbitt B and Lunn J. (2008) Mycoprotein and health. BNF Nutrition Bulletin 33: 298 – 310.

Finnigan TJA. (2011) Mycoprotein: origins, production and properties. In Handbook of Food Proteins (ed GO Philips and PA Williams), pp 335 – 352. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.

Knight N, Roberts G, Shelton D. (2001) The thermal stability of Quorn pieces. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 36 (1), 47-52.

Miri T. (2004) Rheology and microstructure of mycoprotein filamentous paste. Ph.D Thesis. University of Birmingham.

Miri T, Barigou M, Fryer PJ, Cox PW. (2005) Flow induced fiber alignment in mycoprotein paste. Food Res. International. 38 1151 – 1160.

Rodger, GW. Angold, R>E. (1991). The effect of freezing on some properties of Quorn mycoprotein. In Food freezing: today and tomorrow. Ed. Bald, W.B. 87 – 95.

Sadler M. (1990) Mycoprotein – A New Food. Nutr Bull BNF 15:180-190. Cited In: Marlow Foods, 2001.

Sadler M. (1991) Mycoprotein in the British Diet. In: General Practitioners Yearbook. pp. 515-518. Cited In: Marlow Foods, 2001.

Wheelock V. (1993) Quorn: a case study of a healthy food ingredient. Br Food J 95(5):40-44.


Marks L. (2005) Effects of mycoprotein foodstuffs on glycaemic responses and other factors beneficial to health. PhD Thesis. University of Ulster.

Bottin J, Cropp E, Finnigan TJA, Hogben A, Frost G. (2012) Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and improves insulin sensitivity compared to chicken. Proc ECO. Lyon May 2012.

Bottin J, Cropp E, Ford H, Betremieux L, Finnigan TJA, Frost G. (2011) Mycoprotein reduces insulinaemia and improves insulin sensitivity. Proc Nutr Soc 70 E372.

Frost G, Bottin J, Finnigan TJA. Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and improves insulin sensitivity without altering GLP-1 and PYY concentrations in overweight adults. Am J Clin Nutr.

Turnbull, WH, et al. (1998) Myco-protein as a Functional Food: Effects on Lipemia, Glycemia and Appetite Variables. Proc. 16th Intnl Cong Nutr. (included as reference 12).

Turnbull WH, Ward T. (1995) Myco protein reduces glycemia and insulinemia when taken with an oral glucose tolerance test. Am J Clin Nutr 61 (1) 135-140.

Nutrition Science

Edwards DG, Cummings JH. (2010) The protein quality of mycoprotein. Proc Nutr Soc 69(OCE4): E331.

Quigley ME, Englyst HN. (1992) Determination of neutral sugars and hexosamines by HPLC with pulsed amperometric detection. Analyst 117, 1715 – 1718.

Dunlop MV, Kilroe S, Bowtel J, Finnigan TJA, Salmon D, Wall B. (2017) Mycoprotein represents a bioavailable and insulinotropic non-animal derived dietary protein source: a dose-response study. British J Nutr. In Press.


Bottin J. (2014). Nutritional and surgical influences on appetite regulation and body composition in overweight and obese humans. PhD Thesis. Imperial College London.

Burley VJ, et al. (1993) Influence of High Fiber Food (Myco-protein) on Appetite: Effects of Satiation (Within Meals) and Satiety (Following Meals). Euro J Clin Nutr 47, 409-418.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1991) The Effect of Myco-protein on Hunger, Satiety and Subsequent Food Consumption, in Obesity in Europe 9 1: 67-70, ed. Ailhaud G. et. al.

Turnbull WH, et al. (1993) Acute Effects of Myco-protein on Subsequent Energy Intake and Appetite Variables. Am J Clin Nutr 58 (4): 507-512. Accessible at

Turnbull WH, et al. (1998) Myco-protein as a Functional Food: Effects on Lipemia, Glycemia and Appetite Variables. Proc. 16th Intnl Cong Nutr.

Williamson DA, et al. (2006) Effects of consuming mycoprotein, tofu or chicken upon subsequent eating behaviour, hunger and safety. Appetite 46: 41-48.

Bottin, J Swann, JR Cropp, E Chambers, ES, Ford, HE, Ghatei, M and Frost GS (2016) Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and post prandial glucose release without altering glucagon like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations in healthy overweight and obese adults: a randomised control trial. British Journal of Nutrition 116, 360 – 374.


Blonk H, et al. (2008) Milieueffecten van Nederlandse consumptie van eiwitrije producten. Gevolgen van veranging van dierlijke eiwitten anno 2008. Blonk Milieu Advies Gouda.

Finnigan TJA. (2012) Mycoprotein; origin, production and properties. In: Handbook of Food Proteins Ed Phillips, GO and Williams, PA. Woodhead Publishing, 333 – 352.

Finnigan TJA. (2010) Mycoprotein LCA and the Food 2030 challenge. Aspects Appl Biol. 102 81 – 90.

Finnigan TJA. et al. (2010) A scoping study towards an LCA for Quorn mince Proc VII Intl conference on LCA in the agri food sector Bari Sept 2010.

Finnigan TJA, Lemon M, Allen B, Paton I. (2010) Mycoprotein LCA and Food 2030. Aspects of Applied Biology 102, 81 – 90.

Tuomisto H. (2010) Food security and protein supply. Cultured meat a solution? Aspects Appl Biol, 102 99 – 104.

Quorn Frozen Mince certification by the Carbon Trust:

Neville, N. Finnigan TJA, Akintoye OA and Martindale W. (2012) Life cycle assessment in the meat alternative foods sector. Carbon footprinting and consumer communications. Proc 8th Int Conf Life Cycel Assessment in the Food Agri Sector. Oct 1 – 4 St Malo.

Finnigan, TJA, Needham, L and Abbott, CM (2016) Mycoprotein a healthy new protein with a low environmental impact. IN: Sustainable Proteins ed Sudarshan Nadathur, Janitha P. D. Dr. Wanasundara, Laurie Scanlin. Academic Press, 301 – 326.

Derbyshire, EJ (2017) Flexitarian Diets and Health: A Review of the Evidence-Based Literature. Frontiers in Nutrition 6.

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Khoury CK, et al. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 18; 111(11): 4001–4006.

FAO. 2017 Strategic work of FAO for SUSTAINABLE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE. Accessible at

Ranganathan J, et al. Shifting Diets for a Sustainable Food Future. Working Paper, Installment 11 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Accessible at